Recording Results

Recording and evaluating learning performances more easily

Die Hände einer Person schreiben auf der Tastatur eines Laptops. Die Hände einer Person schreiben auf der Tastatur eines Laptops. Die Hände einer Person schreiben auf der Tastatur eines Laptops. © janeb13 /

Monitoring the learning outcomes of students is an essential and self-evident part of the learning process. One option is electronic examinations, which have been used at many universities for years. Conducting examinations digitally can have several advantages over traditional paper-based examinations, although these advantages vary according to the version selected.

Online examinations are conducted on an electronic device (computer, tablet, etc.). In most cases, questions in multiple-choice (MC) or single-choice (SC) format are used, which can be marked automatically. But in principle free text and a number of other formats are also possible. A special case is that of semi-electronic examinations, using scanners; these are done on paper and then marked by scanning them in to a computer. 

Examinations scenarios

Of the mentioned forms of examination, the Leibniz University Hannover (LUH) centrally supports scan examinations. All three examination scenarios are described for a better overview.

Comparison of the three examination scenarios

Parameters Stationary examinations
at the computer
Mobile examinations on hired devices Scanned-in
Size of group limited; dependent on the size of the PC pool* unlimitedunlimited
Flexibility in
terms of rooms

tied to infrastructure;
PC faculties required

flexible; power supply needed, does not require rooms equipped with PCs independent on location; does not require rooms equipped with PCs
medium (including provision of server and computers) high (coordination with hire company) low to medium
Time required for marking fast, immediate fast, immediate duration of scanning procedure
Media support visual, audio, audio-visual visual, audio, audio-visual written text
Types of question 16 types of questions, including open questions and stack** 16 types of questions, including open questions and
single-/multiple-choice, open-style questions
Archiving digital digital paper and digital (scanned-infile)

*if, for example, 50 PCs are available, up to 100 candidates can sit an examination in two sittings without difficulty. With more than two groups, different versions of the examination would need to be prepared in order to prevent students from exchanging notes.

**Stack is a type of electronic question which is used for the formulation of mathematics tasks in ILIAS. You can find further information on Stack in our instructions (in German).


When making use of electronic examinations, there are various aspects to which you must pay attention – didactics, examinations regulations, organisation and the legal safeguarding of the examination. Setting suitable examination questions and the smooth running of online examinations frequently poses a challenge.

The elsa has long-standing experience in dealing with the aspects cited above and can offer support and advice to interested parties.